Glossary of Terms/ Resources

Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict

"Implicit in recent scholarly debates about the efficacy of methods of warfare is the assumption that the most effective means of waging political struggle entails violence.  Among political scientists, the prevailing view is that opposition movements select violent methods because such means are more effective than nonviolent strategies at achieving policy goals. Despite these assumptions, from 2000 to 2006 organized civilian populations successfully employed nonviolent methods including boycotts, strikes, protests, and organized noncooperation to challenge entrenched power and exact political concessions in Serbia (2000), Madagascar (2002), Georgia (2003) and Ukraine (2004–05), Lebanon (2005), and Nepal (2006). The success of these nonviolent campaigns—especially in light of the enduring violent insurgencies occurring in some of the same countries—begs systematic investigation."

City Life / Vida Urbana's Bank Tenant Association Organizing Manual

"The information we have included in this manual is a product of interviews with CL/VU organizers, staff, and members of our leadership team. We also spoke to volunteers and organizers working in some of our replication sites, and several of our legal and non-profit lender partners." - CL/VU

Condition of Employment:

"Under § 7103(a)(14), COE "means personnel policies, practices, and matters, whether established by rule, regulation, or otherwise [e.g., by custom or practice], affecting working conditions, except that such term does not include policies, practices, and matters--(A) relating to political activities prohibited under subchapter III of chapter 73 of this title; (B) relating to the classification of any positions; or (C) to the extent such matters are specifically provided for by Federal statute[.]" (Emphasis added.) The fact that a statute deals with a matter doesn't mean that everything related to that matter isn't a condition of employment."

Concensus Process:

"Consensus decision-making is a group decision making process that seeks the consent, not necessarily the agreement of participants and the resolution of objections. Consensus is defined by Merriam-Webster as, first, general agreement, and second, group solidarity of belief or sentiment. It has its origin in a Latin word meaning literally feel together.[1] It is used to describe both the decision and the process of reaching a decision. Consensus decision-making is thus concerned with the process of reaching a consensus decision, and the social and political effects of using this process."
     - From Wiki-Pedia link to CT Butler's Guide to Formal Consensus 

Contemporary Context of "Political Theater"

"All of the above refers to politics in theatre or theatrics in poliltics, but a more contemporary meaning of the term "Political Theatre" refers to theatrical acts of protest performed by surprise in public to draw attention to political issues. The practitioners most famous for the art are Abbie Hoffman and other Yippies. Bare-breasted women at Occupy protests, the 2012 campaign of Presidential candidate Vermin Supreme, and (in some cases) flash mobs are other examples". - wiki

Christ on a crutch if anyone has a better definition for that please kick it my way, I'll be looking in the mean time. eesh.

Good Faith Bargaining: Layman:

"Good faith bargaining: Good-faith bargaining generally refers to the duty of the parties to meet and negotiate at reasonable times with willingness to reach agreement on matters within the scope of representation; however, neither party is required to make a concession or agree to any proposal.

Good faith bargaining requires employers and unions involved in collective bargaining to:
Use their best endeavours to agree to an effective bargaining process meet and consider and respond to proposals made by each other respect the role of the other's representative by not seeking to bargain directly with those for whom the representative acts not do anything to undermine the bargaining process or the authority of the other's representative."

Good Faith Bargaining: Legal:

"Defined by § 7114(b) as the duty to approach negotiations with a sincere resolve to reach a collective bargaining agreement, to be represented by properly authorized representatives who are prepared to discuss and negotiate on any condition of employment, to meet at reasonable times and places as frequently as may be necessary and to avoid unnecessary delays, and, in the case of the agency, to furnish upon request data necessary to negotiation."
     -US Office of Personnel Management


Shorthand for Operations Development.  As issues come up that I'd like to take a closer look at, or open a dialogue regarding, I generate posts, and toss them into the #opdev page.

198 Methods of Nonviolent Action - Albert Einstein Institution

"These methods were compiled by Dr. Gene Sharp and first published in his 1973 book, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Vol. 2: The Methods of Nonviolent Action. (Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1973). The book outlines each method and gives information about its historical use." 
You may also download this list of methods. 

Safer Spaces Working Agreement as handed down by the almighty Occupy Wallstreet:


Safer Spaces Working Group
(This is a living document to be amended as we learn by living with it; once approved it will be made available in multiple languages)

I. Statement of Intention Upon Entering the Space

I enter this space with a commitment to mutual respect, mutual aid, anti-oppression, conflict resolution, nonviolence, and direct democracy.

I recognize that I may still have a lot to learn about types of oppression and I commit to learn.

I support the empowerment of each person in order to subvert the histories and structures of oppression that marginalize and divide us, such as racism, sexism, classism, heterosexism, transphobia, religious discrimination, ageism, & ableism.

I hold myself accountable to community decisions and work for the well being of all.

I agree that if I violate any of the community agreements listed below, or act in a way that harms the community, I will accept the decision of the community and remove myself from the physical space.


We commit to making OWS spaces physically accessible to all.

We commit to making resources equally accessible to all.

We do not engage in violence or threats of violence in this space.

We get explicit consent before interacting physically, or using others’ belongings.

We affirm that consent is not just the absence of a “no,” but the presence of a “yes.”

I acknowledge that different people in our community have different vulnerabilities to police or hospital interaction, due to their race, documentation status, immigration status, gender, economic situation, age, criminal justice or medical history, and experience with police violence.

I will not use substances inside this space that may attract the attention of police and risk harm to our community.

In the event that a person is harmed, it is their discretion to involve the police or not. The decision to call an ambulance is also theirs.  This does not apply when someone is unconscious, their life is in immediate danger, or they are otherwise incapable of consenting.

We respect everyone’s names, preferred gender pronouns, and expressed identities.  We make no assumptions about someone’s race, gender, age or class identity based on their appearance. We also understand that no one is required to share information about their identities.

We commit to ongoing awareness of our prejudices, the structures of oppression that affect our personal experiences, and our privileges (by virtue of being white, male, cis-gendered, able-bodied, a U.S. citizen, wealthy, and/or straight, among other identities) in this society.

We recognize that certain behavior—such as shouting someone down in a meeting or trivializing oppression—can be triggering for survivors of sexual assault and/or those who have been on the receiving end of different and multiple forms of  oppression.

We speak only for ourselves, and commit to hearing each other and creating opportunities for all voices to be heard, especially those that have been historically marginalized or silenced.


We accept a shared responsibility to hold one another and ourselves accountable to these agreements.  If we feel that an agreement is not being respected, we will express that concern without violence, judgment, or assumption of intent by others.

As a community, we commit to developing creative and transformative ways to address harm. When someone is harmed, we affirm that the experience and decisions of the person harmed will guide our responses and next steps, while allowing all parties involved to transform the cycles of abuse and violence.

Each decision making body will collectively develop their own meeting agreements for how people will interact with each other. Each meeting will begin with a reminder of these agreements, and reference will be made to them as needed.

We agree that issues may arise that take priority over the meeting agenda and space needs to be given to address them immediately.  Such priority is needed to create and support an anti-oppressive space.

If an individual disrespects any of these community agreements we have the option to collectively implement the 6-step de-escalation process* or require the individual to participate in the OWS grievance process (once it is agreed upon). Either process once followed may result in an individual being asked to leave for a set or indefinite period of time, or until agreement has been reached about conditions for return. Refusal to respect either process and leave when asked could result in the individual being removed from the space.

Those who have committed harm in this space, or who have been called out for harm in the past and whose presence limits participation of others in this movement, may be asked to leave until the person has completed or is in compliance with an accountability process. We will work to coordinate with organizations that assist individuals who are overcoming addiction or who have committed abuse or violence.

* 6 Step De-escalation Process

(This 6 step process was designed by the Safety Cluster to address conflict in the Zuccotti Park encampment.)

1. DISCOVER – person sees what’s going on

2. CALM – Neighbors / friends step in to initiate dialogue

3. SUPPORT – Call out for support/security/medics — group members approach as team, support and safer spaces go in first, de-escalation backs them up, steps up if need be. These groups can help address basic comfort needs, or encourage person in distress to get medical support.  If can’t be resolved, go to next step.

4. DE-ESCALATE – de-escalation/security

5. PEACE COUNCIL –  1-2 reps each from de-escalation, safer spaces, medical, & support – assess for things like danger to self or others and responds appropriately.
(Harmed person or people will guide actions taken, and group makes decision together.)

6. ACTION – Strategies for accountability other actions decided on by the peace council (including community-wide awareness raising, community direct action, or options of ejection, and as last resort of EMS or off-site police involvement.)

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